The painful search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 could have been shortened as a result of recommendations stemming from another tragedy five years ago. The point is debatable. What’s not as debatable is that if recommendations from the June 1, 2009 crash of Air France Flight 447 had been fully implemented chances are by now that we would have a better picture of what the mechanics of the Malaysian mystery are – even absent finding of the Digital Flight Data (DFDR) and Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVR).In the case of Air France 447, in which all 228 souls on board died, from the time the debris was spotted in the South Atlantic till the locating of the critical Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder consumed an agonizing two years.“We may not have thought it would happen again, but when it happens twice in five years…it’s unacceptable,” says Mark Rosenker, former chairman of the US National Transportation Safety Board. Now president of McLean, Virginia-based Transportation Safety Group, LLC, he says, “We may never know what happened to [the 777-200]…That’s absolutely unacceptable with the quality of airplanes we’re running, and their incredible efficiency and safety. When extraordinary things [like MH370] do happen we must understand so that we can potentially prevent the next one.”That’s why in the aftermath of AF447 the French BEA, the Bureau of Inquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation, recommended, among other measures, that the life of Underwater Locator Beacons (ULBs) be extended to 90 days rather than the current 30 and “installed on airplanes performing public transport flights over maritime areas.”Both the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and the European Aviation Safety Agency are moving to triple the life of ULB transmissions. In a prepared statement, FAA says, “An FAA standard will phase out devices that transmitted for 30 days and replace them with devices that transmit for 90 days,” this change comes as the result of a Technical Standard Order, or TSO. FAA goes on to say, “30-day ULDs cannot be manufactured under the TSO program after February 28, 2015. All 30-day devices must be replaced with 90-day devices by 2020.”The net effect? Things are getting better, but it’s going to take a while.BEA also recommended the International Civil Aviation Organization Flight Recorder Panel group come up with proposals “for implementing deployable recorders.” That means in the event of an accident the recorder would be automatically ejected from the airplane. It would also float. Attached to an emergency locator beacon, this could give searchers a better shot at actually getting to the so-called “black boxes,” rather than having to plumb the oft-times daunting depths of the sea floor.But the recommendation that’s received the most buzz, the one which can be technologically implemented if not exactly instantly then in the near future, is BEA’s call to “study the possibility of making it mandatory for airplanes performing public transport flights to regularly transmit basic flight parameters” covering such essentials as position, altitude, speed and heading.” The wording here is important. BEA stopped short of actually advocating “streaming” DFDR data.The Technology Already Exists, or Soon Will“The reality is there are technological solutions which are here now,” says Rosenker, “or [will be] in the relatively near future.” One candidate ready to go is an Automatic Flight Information Reporting System, or AFIRS, manufactured by the Canadian firm FLYHT. In a written statement, FLYHT says, “AFIRS is normally installed on aircraft to support communication and operations during routine operations.” While not fitted on flying machines solely for emergency uses, the company claims the system is “capable of automatically switching to emergency mode streaming when the aircraft is in an unusual state or upon request from the crew or ground.”FLYHT’s statement goes on to maintain were MH370 so equipped, “We would know where the aircraft was when it last had electrical power.” Moreover, the company contends, “We would know the behavior of the aircraft at all times leading up that point.” That includes its altitude, airspeed, heading, engine state and such.The cost? US$100,000 per airplane.As for connectivity, the current crop of satellites is limited in terms of being able to continuously stream DFDR data—even Inmarsat’s advanced I-4 . “The I-4 uses the L Band spectrum, which “has only a limited megahertz capability,” says Chris McLaughlin, the company’s senior vice president for external affairs. Right now, streaming data is confined to information derived from ACARS (the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System), such as engine operations. It doesn’t transmit critical information from the Digital Flight Data Recorder.ACARS information is delivered in bursts. McLaughlin says, “You only get to the level of being able to constantly stream when you get to [Boeing’s new] Global Xpress” satellite, which is set to debut in 2015.Here’s the point: a lot of knowledgeable people believe the technological foundation has been laid for the streaming of potentially life-saving information. “Clearly, the data points from the [Digital] Flight Data Recorder shouldn’t be too difficult [to stream],” says former NTSB chief Mark Rosenker. But the Cockpit Voice Recorder may be another matter. There are privacy issues, specifically concerning pilots. Rosenker thinks they can be addressed. “We don’t have to re-invent the wheel” as to privacy law.Nor do you have to transmit all the data. Some DFDRs can record 256 parameters, giving aircraft accident investigators a fine-grain, contextually-textured picture of just what happened to an accident aircraft. In a streaming scenario, Rosenker says “we might me looking at 15 to 20 [parameters].” Basic stuff, essential information, enough to work with till the black boxes themselves are retrieved.He says, “Accident investigators would sit in conference and try to come up with what they believe to be best…recognizing that they would be limited” as to what could be streamed from the DFDR.Rosenker is not advocating the whole civilian airline fleet be fitted with the gear. “I’m not suggesting that every single airplane in the world have this kind of capability. This would be for long-hauls, [where] most of their routes are going over ocean. That’s where we’re having our problems, finding aircraft when they fall into the ocean.”With the globalization of the world’s economy, over-ocean flying is growing fast, much faster than, say, domestic flying in countries such as the United States.Industry ReactionTrade groups representing the airlines are cautious about proceeding full force down the path to DFDR data streaming. “Modern aircraft systems record a vast amount of information,” says Perry Flint, the International Air Transport Association’s head of corporate communications for the Americas. While saying “It would be possible to select a subset of the data and program the systems to transmit the data either continuously or repeatedly (in bursts)…given the fact that there are almost 100,000 flight sectors [flown] in a day, we’re talking about an enormous amount of data.” Asserting that all that information makes it tough to ferret out “critical information or trends,” Flint nonetheless holds open the door industry players could work together to define a “useful subset” of data and criteria that could trigger transmission of the most essential DFDR information.In the wide wake of MH370, Katie Connell, Airlines for America’s managing director for airline industry PR and communications, says, “It’s premature for us to speculate about potential changes to safety and security procedures.”How Many Times Does This Have To Happen?Airline accidents are rarely one-of-a-kind occurrences. There’s almost always a precedent as to what might lie ahead. The theory is that lessons learned will be translated into action taken – even if it takes a while. Take wind shear accidents. Between 1975 and 1985 there were three high-profile accidents triggered by vicious, divergent winds. Two happened on landing, one on take off:– June 24, 1975. Eastern Airlines Flight 66 hits a microburst on approach to New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport. 113 perish.– July 9, 1982, Pan Am Flight 759 is done in by a microburst on takeoff from New Orleans International. 153 dead. – August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes short of the runway at Dallas/Fort Worth International. 137 people die.Delta 191 was the tipping point. Ten years and 403 deaths later the industry finally moved to take concerted action, developing and deploying ground-based Terminal Doppler Radar systems near a slew of major airports. Airborne wind shear detectors were also mandated for many aircraft.Now, five years after Air France Flight 447 people like Mark Rosenker are renewing the call for a higher-tech, real-time way of delivering potentially life-saving Digital Flight Data Recorder information. He says, “[MH370] may well be the seminal accident,” in this regard, “the one that attracts the concern of both policy-makers and industry.”The one that says, ‘enough is enough.’ MH370 Tributes Page
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Below are excerpts from a summary of some key requirements compiled by the U.S Food and Drug Administration of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). 1. Agricultural waterThe final rule adopts the general approach to water quality proposed in the supplemental rule, with some changes. The final rule establishes two sets of criteria for microbial water quality, both of which are based on the presence of generic E. coli, which can indicate the presence of fecal contamination.No detectable generic E. coli are allowed for certain uses of agricultural water in which it is reasonably likely that potentially dangerous microbes, if present, would be transferred to produce through direct or indirect contact. Examples include water used for washing hands during and after harvest, water used on food-contact surfaces, water used to directly contact produce (including to make ice) during or after harvest, and water used for sprout irrigation. The rule establishes that such water use must be immediately discontinued and corrective actions taken before re-use for any of these purposes if generic E. coli is detected. The rule prohibits use of untreated surface water for any of these purposes.The second set of numerical criteria is for agricultural water that is directly applied to growing produce (other than sprouts). The criteria are based on two values, the geometric mean (GM) and the statistical threshold (STV). The GM of samples is 126 or less colony forming unit (CFU) of generic E.coli per 100 mL of water and the STV of samples is 410 CFU or less of generic E.coli in 100 mL of water.The GM is an average, and therefore represents what is called the central tendency of the water quality (essentially, the average amount of generic E. coli in a water source). STV reflects the amount of variability in the water quality (indicating E. coli levels when adverse conditions come into play — like rainfall or a high river stage that can wash waste into rivers and canals). Although this is an over simplification, it can be described as the level at which 90% of the samples are below the value.These criteria account for variability in the data and allow for occasional high readings of generic E.coli in appropriate context, making it much less likely (as compared to the originally proposed criteria for this water use) that a farm will have to discontinue use of its water source due to small fluctuations in water quality.If the water does not meet these criteria, corrective actions are required as soon as is practicable, but no later than the following year. Farmers with agricultural water that does not initially meet the microbial criteria have additional flexibility by which they can meet the criteria and then be able to use the water on their crops. These options include, for example: allowing time for potentially dangerous microbes to die off on the field by using a certain time interval between last irrigation and harvest, but no more than four consecutive days; allowing time for potentially dangerous microbes to die off between harvest and end of storage, or to be removed during commercial activities such as washing, within appropriate limits; treating the water. Testing surface waterThe final rule adopts the general approach to testing untreated water used for certain purposes proposed in the supplemental notice, with some changes. The rule still bases testing frequency on the type of water source (i.e. surface or ground water).• In testing untreated surface water — considered the most vulnerable to external influences — that is directly applied to growing produce (other than sprouts), the FDA requires farms to do an initial survey, using a minimum of 20 samples, collected as close as is practicable to harvest over the course of two to four years. The initial survey findings are used to calculate the GM and STV.• After the initial survey has been conducted, an annual survey of a minimum of five samples per year is required to update the calculations of GM and STV.• The five new samples, plus the previous most recent 15 samples, create a rolling dataset of 20 samples for use in confirming that the water is still used appropriately by recalculating the GM and STV. Testing ground waterFor untreated ground water that is directly applied to growing produce (other than sprouts), the FDA requires farms to do an initial survey, using a minimum of four samples, collected as close as is practicable to harvest, during the growing season or over a period of one year. The initial survey findings are used to calculate the GM and STV and determine if the water meets the required microbial quality criteria. After the initial survey has been conducted, an annual survey of a minimum of one sample per year is required to update the calculations of GM and STV.The new sample, plus the previous most recent three samples, create a rolling dataset of four samples for use in confirming that that the water is still used appropriately by recalculating the GM and STV.For untreated ground water that is used for the purposes for which no detectable generic E. coli is allowed, the FDA requires farms to initially test the untreated ground water at least four times during the growing season or over a period of one year. Farms must determine whether the water can be used for that purpose based on these results.If the four initial sample results meet the no detectable generic E. coli criterion, testing can be done once annually thereafter, using a minimum of one sample. Farms must resume testing at least four times per growing season or year if any annual test fails to meet the microbial quality criterion.There is no requirement to test agricultural water that is received from public water systems or supplies that meet requirements established in the rule (provided that the farm has Public Water System results or certificates of compliance demonstrating that the water meets relevant requirements), or if the water is treated in compliance with the rule’s treatment requirements. 2. Biological soil amendmentsRaw manureThe FDA is conducting a risk assessment and extensive research on the number of days needed between the applications of raw manure as a soil amendment and harvesting to minimize the risk of contamination. (A soil amendment is a material, including manure, that is intentionally added to the soil to improve its chemical or physical condition for growing plants or to improve its capacity to hold water.)At this time, the FDA does not object to farmers complying with the USDA’s National Organic Program standards, which call for a 120-day interval between the application of raw manure for crops in contact with the soil and 90 days for crops not in contact with the soil. The agency considers adherence to these standards a prudent step toward minimizing the likelihood of contamination while its risk assessment and research is ongoing.The final rule requires that untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin, such as raw manure, must be applied in a manner that does not contact covered produce during application and minimizes the potential for contact with covered produce after application. Stabilized compostMicrobial standards that set limits on detectable amounts of bacteria (including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., fecal coliforms, and E. coli 0157:H7) have been established for processes used to treat biological soil amendments, including manure. The rule includes two examples of scientifically valid composting methods that meet those standards. Stabilized compost prepared using either of these methods must be applied in a manner that minimizes the potential for contact with produce during and after application. 3. Domesticated and wild animalsThe rule addresses concerns about the feasibility of compliance for farms that rely on grazing animals (such as livestock) or working animals for various purposes. It establishes the same standards for these animals as it does for intrusion by wild animals (such as deer or feral swine). Farmers are required to take all measures reasonably necessary to identify and not harvest produce that is likely to be contaminated.At a minimum, this requires all covered farms to visually examine the growing area and all covered produce to be harvested, regardless of the harvest method used.In addition, under certain circumstances the rule requires farms to do additional assessment during the growing season, and if significant evidence of potential contamination by animals is found, to take measures reasonably necessary to assist later during harvest. Such measures might include, for example, placing flags outlining the affected area.Although the final rule does not require establishing waiting periods between grazing and harvest, the FDA encourages farmers to voluntarily consider applying such intervals as appropriate for the farm’s commodities and practices. The agency will consider providing guidance on this practice in the future, as needed.As was stated in the supplemental notice, farms are not required to exclude animals from outdoor growing areas, destroy animal habitat, or clear borders around growing or drainage areas. 4. Worker training and health and hygieneRequirements for health and hygiene include:• Taking measures to prevent contamination of produce and food-contact surfaces by ill or infected persons, for example, instructing personnel to notify their supervisors if they may have a health condition that may result in contamination of covered produce or food contact surfaces.• Using hygienic practices when handling (contacting) covered produce or food-contact surfaces, for example, washing and drying hands thoroughly at certain times such as after using the toilet.• Taking measures to prevent visitors from contaminating covered produce and/or food-contact surfaces, for example, by making toilet and hand-washing facilities accessible to visitors.• Farm workers who handle covered produce and/ or food-contact surfaces, and their supervisors, must be trained on certain topics, including the importance of health and hygiene.• Farm workers who handle covered produce and/or food contact surfaces, and their supervisors, are also required to have a combination of training, education and experience necessary to perform their assigned responsibilities. This could include training (such as training provided on the job), in combination with education, or experience (e.g., work experience related to current assigned duties). 5. Equipment, tools and buildingsThe rule establishes standards related to equipment, tools and buildings to prevent these sources, and inadequate sanitation, from contaminating produce. This section of the rule covers, for example, greenhouses, germination chambers, and other such structures, as well as toilet and hand-washing facilities. Required measures to prevent contamination of covered produce and food contact surfaces include, for example, appropriate storage, maintenance and cleaning of equipment and tools.The rule does not apply to:• Produce that is not a raw agricultural commodity. (A raw agricultural commodity is any food in its raw or natural state).• Food grains, including barley, dent- or flint-corn, sorghum, oats, rice, rye, wheat, amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat, and oilseeds (e.g. cotton seed, flax seed, rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower seed).• Produce that is used for personal or on-farm consumption.• Farms that have an average annual value of produce sold during the previous three-year period of $25,000 or less.• The rule provides an exemption for produce that receives commercial processing that adequately reduces the presence of microorganisms of public health significance, under certain conditions. The rule also provides a qualified exemption and modified requirements for certain farms. To be eligible for a qualified exemption, the farm must meet two requirements: the farm must have food sales averaging less than $500,000 per year during the previous three years; and the farm’s sales to qualified end-users must exceed sales to all others combined during the previous three years. A qualified end-user is either (a) the consumer of the food or (b) a restaurant or retail food establishment that is located in the same state or the same Indian reservation as the farm or not more than 275 miles away.• A farm with the qualified exemption must still meet certain modified requirements, including disclosing the name and the complete business address of the farm where the produce was grown either on the label of the produce or at the point of purchase. These farms are also required to establish and keep certain documentation.• A farm’s qualified exemption may be withdrawn as follows if there is an active investigation of an outbreak of foodborne illness that is directly linked to the farm, or if FDA determines it is necessary to protect the public health and prevent or mitigate an outbreak based on conduct or conditions associated with the farm. For much more (including details on the production of sprouts), visit http://www.regulations.gov/ FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act page atwww.fda.gov/FSMA.
Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Floyd Mayweather presents an entirely different challenge when McGregor steps in the Vegas ring Saturday night. In his professional boxing debut, McGregor must figure out how to beat Mayweather at his own game — something the best boxers in the world have never done.McGregor is a massive underdog, and deservedly so. But stop pretending the improbable doesn’t happen in combat sports, particularly when the self-proclaimed Mystic Mac is involved.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingTo declare McGregor can’t possibly win this fight displays more arrogance than, say, spending every night at a strip club the week beforehand, as Mayweather is currently doing.Of course the hard-hitting Irishman has a chance — and there are several tactics he could employ to pull the biggest upset in boxing history. Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters He throws hundreds of punches from every angle with the goal of setting up the vicious left hand that has turned out the lights on MMA opponents.And if none of that is successful, McGregor could bend the Marquess of Queensberry rules to their breaking point in hopes of goading Mayweather into a brawl.None of it is guaranteed to work. But it’s definitely worth a shot.Looking back at Mayweather’s history is a daunting task, given his 49-0 record, but it contains clues for tactics that could magnify McGregor’s chances.For instance, McGregor could amplify the strategy used by Marcos Maidana and Jose Luis Castillo. Both boxers pressed Mayweather constantly, using roughhouse tactics on the border of legality, and bombarded Mayweather with punches, many from unorthodox angles.Mayweather won both fights, but definitely looked uncomfortable for long stretches. McGregor doesn’t have the hand speed of those professional boxers, but he should strive to emulate their urgency.He should also attempt to show Mayweather things he’s never seen before in the ring, and his decision not to hire a boxing trainer for the bout might actually help in that regard. The UFC star should switch stances and try just about any punch, including the looping overhand shots rarely seen in high-level boxing matches because they’re easily countered, but common in MMA bouts because of the distance they create from the opponent.If McGregor gets hit, so be it. Every punch absorbed is the price for a chance to reply.McGregor believes Mayweather made a mistake by agreeing to fight in 8-ounce gloves instead of the typical 10-ounce pillows, but he shouldn’t rely solely on the unicorn one-punch knockout. While McGregor has definite power, only the biggest Mac homer would think it’s something Mayweather hasn’t seen from boxers — and Mayweather has shown a solid chin and excellent recovery skills on the few occasions he has been hit.Instead, the key is to use that energy to get in a good position to unload the left hand or a combination through Mayweather’s shifty defense. McGregor could repeatedly tie up Mayweather and attempt to land shots in the clinch. View comments MOST READ Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ LATEST STORIES “The people who don’t believe it don’t know anything about fighting,” said UFC President Dana White, who admittedly has a slight bias here. “This isn’t going to be a boxing match. This is going to be a fight.”It’s also a fight between a 29-year-old southpaw in his prime and a 40 1/2-year-old veteran who hasn’t fought in nearly two years and doesn’t particularly want to be here, as he acknowledged repeatedly Wednesday. Mayweather isn’t the fighter he once was, and his competitive fire is dwarfed by his need for the mammoth paycheck from this endeavor.But how does an MMA fighter with no competitive boxing experience since childhood take on a 21-year pro veteran with world championships in five divisions and arguably the most brilliant defensive skills in the history of the sport?He gets in Mayweather’s face, both before and during the fight.He charges forward from the opening bell and forces Mayweather to think defensively all night.ADVERTISEMENT These things could all unsettle Mayweather, who typically doesn’t face trouble unless he takes a voluntary risk by moving into dangerous areas to throw combinations, or getting angry and brawling a bit.And therein is another potential route for McGregor. Call it the Aldo Strategy: If he can get Mayweather feeling both confident and angry, there’s a chance Mayweather will let down his defense enough to attempt to finish McGregor in brute style — and maybe McGregor will have an opening.Mayweather hasn’t seemed interested in McGregor’s typical trash talk during the buildup to the fight, but perhaps he could waver the champion’s focus with the wrong word, an errant elbow or a rabbit punch behind the head — enough to draw a warning, but not lose a point.McGregor amplified his boasts this week, calling Mayweather “a broken man” and vowing to finish him within two rounds. Nobody knows whether McGregor actually believes his bluster, but the Irishman has defiantly vowed he will win.It’s not probable. But with McGregor, anything is possible.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Conor McGregor speaks during news conference Wednesday, Aug. 23, 2017, in Las Vegas. McGregor is scheduled to fight Floyd Mayweather Jr. in a boxing match Saturday in Las Vegas. (AP Photo/John Locher)LAS VEGAS (AP) — Just 20 months ago, a former plumber from Dublin fought a fearsome superstar who hadn’t lost in a decade. Conor McGregor talked his way into a big-money showdown, but he had to back up his boasts against Jose Aldo, one of the greatest fighters in his sport.McGregor finished the UFC featherweight champion in 13 seconds with one devastating left hand.ADVERTISEMENT NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo Biggest Pogo service provider padlocked for tax evasion Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Big money bets roll in late on Floyd Mayweather
Gujarat Lions skipper Suresh Raina hits a shot during an IPL Match played against Kings XI Punjab at I S Bindra Stadium in Mohali on Sunday. – Photo: Akhilesh Kumar Together with Ishan Kishan (29 off 24 balls), Smith shared 91 runs for the opening partnership to lay the foundation for the chase. SHARE IPL 2017 COMMENTS Smith struck eight boundaries and four huge hits over the fence during his explosive knock. Sent into bat, Hashim Amla played a brilliant knock to notch up his second century of the ongoing IPL and power Kings XI Punjab to a challenging 189 for three. Dwayne Smith struck a whirlwind 74 as Gujarat Lions defeated Kings XI Punjab by six wickets in an Indian Premier League game, here today. SHARE SHARE EMAIL Amla made 104 off just 60 balls with the help of eight fours and five huge hits over the fence to take Kings XI forward. cricket Dinesh Karthik (35 not out off 23 balls) played a short cameo towards the end as Gujarat Lions reached 192 for four in 19.4 over in their pursuit of 190 Smith was at his attacking best as he dealt mostly in boundaries and sixes. Chasing the target, Gujarat rode on Smith’s brisk batting to race to 91 for no loss inside 10 overs. COMMENT He was ably supported by Shaun Marsh (58 off 43 balls) as the duo shared 125 runs for the second wicket to set the platform for the total. Published on Amla, thus, became the second batsman after Virat Kohli to register two centuries in a single IPL season. × Later, Smith turned out to be the architect of the victory for Gujarat with a whirlwind 74 off just 39 deliveries to get Gujarat off to a flier while chasing a challenging 190 for win. May 07, 2017 Gujarat Lions skipper Suresh Raina hits a shot during an IPL Match played against Kings XI Punjab at I S Bindra Stadium in Mohali on Sunday. – Photo: Akhilesh Kumar
Citation: Amazon bids for 60% stake in India’s Flipkart: report (2018, May 2) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-amazon-stake-india-flipkart.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2018 AFP Amazon has made a big for India’s online retailer Flipkart, putting it in competition with Walmart for e-commerc dominance Explore further Amazon has made a formal offer to acquire a controlling stake in Indian e-commerce giant Flipkart, putting it in contention with Walmart, according to a report Wednesday on Indian network CNBC TV18. Amazon offered to buy 60 percent of Flipkart, which places the bid on a par with an offer from Walmart, according to the station, an affiliate of CNBC.Amazon has offered a $2 billion breakup fee as part of its bid, the report said. The company did not immediately respond to AFP’s request for comment.News of the bid is the latest sign that the competition between Amazon and Walmart for retail leadership is expanding well beyond the United States, where both companies are based.Last year Amazon greatly increased its brick-and-mortar footprint with the purchase of upscale grocery chain Whole Food Market. Walmart, meanwhile, has significantly expanded its e-commerce mission, purchasing Jet.com and spending aggressively to upgrade its mobile application and other tech-centered programs and services. Walmart, Rakuten unveil alliance on e-books, groceries (Update)