Over the past few years, researchers led by George Church have made important strides toward engineering the genomes of pigs to make their cells compatible with the human body. So many think that it’s possible that, with the help of CRISPR technology, a healthy heart for a patient in desperate need might one day come from a pig.“It’s relatively feasible to change one gene in a pig, but to change many dozens — which is quite clear is the minimum here — benefits from CRISPR,” an acronym for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, said Church, the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and a core faculty member of Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Xenotransplantation is “one of few” big challenges (along with gene drives and de-extinction, he said) “that really requires the ‘oomph’ of CRISPR.” George Church’s scientific drive Beam Therapeutics receives Harvard license Behold the mammoth (maybe) Genetic engineering may undercut human diseases, but also could help restore extinct species, researcher says Related Related Firm will use new base editing technology to make precision genetic medicines The prospect of using living, nonhuman organs, and concerns over the infectiousness of pathogens either present in the tissues or possibly formed in combination with human genetic material, have prompted the Food and Drug Administration to issue detailed guidance on xenotransplantation research and development since the mid-1990s. In pigs, a primary concern has been that porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), strands of potentially pathogenic DNA in the animals’ genomes, might infect human patients and eventually cause disease.That’s where the Church lab’s CRISPR expertise has enabled significant advances. In 2015, the lab published important results in the journal Science, successfully demonstrating the use of genome engineering to eliminate all 62 PERVs in porcine cells. Science later called it “the most widespread CRISPR editing feat to date.”In 2017, with collaborators at Harvard, other universities, and eGenesis, Church and Yang went further. Publishing again in Science, they first confirmed earlier researchers’ fears: Porcine cells can, in fact, transmit PERVs into human cells, and those human cells can pass them on to other, unexposed human cells. (It is still unknown under what circumstances those PERVs might cause disease.) In the same paper, they corrected the problem, announcing the embryogenesis and birth of 37 PERV-free pigs.“Taken together, those innovations were stunning,” said Vivian Berlin, director of business development in OTD, who manages the commercialization strategy for much of Harvard’s intellectual property in the life sciences. “That was the foundation they needed, to convince both the scientific community and the investment community that xenotransplantation might become a reality.”“After hundreds of tests, this was a critical milestone for eGenesis — and the entire field — and represented a key step toward safe organ transplantation from pigs,” said Julie Sunderland, interim CEO of eGenesis. “Building on this study, we hope to continue to advance the science and potential of making xenotransplantation a safe and routine medical procedure.” To facilitate the development of safe and effective cells, tissues, and organs for future medical transplantation into human patients, Harvard’s Office of Technology Development has granted a technology license to the Cambridge biotech startup eGenesis.Co-founded by Church and former HMS doctoral student Luhan Yang in 2015, eGenesis announced last year that it had raised $38 million to advance its research and development work. At least eight former members of the Church lab — interns, doctoral students, postdocs, and visiting researchers — have continued their scientific careers as employees there.“The Church Lab is well known for its relentless pursuit of scientific achievements so ambitious they seem improbable — and, indeed, [for] its track record of success,” said Isaac Kohlberg, Harvard’s chief technology development officer and senior associate provost. “George deserves recognition too for his ability to inspire passion and cultivate a strong entrepreneurial drive among his talented research team.”The license from Harvard OTD covers a powerful set of genome-engineering technologies developed at HMS and the Wyss Institute, including access to foundational intellectual property relating to the Church Lab’s 2012 breakthrough use of CRISPR, led by Yang and Prashant Mali, to edit the genome of human cells. Subsequent innovations that enabled efficient and accurate editing of numerous genes simultaneously are also included. The license is exclusive to eGenesis but limited to the field of xenotransplantation.Could these technologies help bring life-saving tissues and organs to patients in need? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network tracks the statistics. About 114,000 people in the United States are on a waitlist for organ transplants. In the general population, only three in 1,000 people die in a way that would enable their organs to be donated — and then only if they are registered donors. Meanwhile, every day, 20 people on that waitlist die waiting. It’s not, however, the end of the story: An immunological challenge remains, which eGenesis will need to address. The potential for a patient’s body to outright reject transplanted tissue has stymied many previous attempts at xenotransplantation. Church said numerous genetic changes must be achieved to make porcine organs fully compatible with human patients. Among these are edits to several immune functions, coagulation functions, complements, and sugars, as well as the PERVs.“Trying the straight transplant failed almost immediately, within hours, because there’s a huge mismatch in the carbohydrates on the surface of the cells, in particular alpha-1-3-galactose, and so that was a showstopper,” Church explained. “When you delete that gene, which you can do with conventional methods, you still get pretty fast rejection, because there are a lot of other aspects that are incompatible. You have to take care of each of them, and not all of them are just about removing things — some of them you have to humanize. There’s a great deal of subtlety involved so that you get normal pig embryogenesis but not rejection.“Putting it all together into one package is challenging,” he concluded.In short, it’s the next big challenge for CRISPR. ‘If you’re not failing, you’re probably not trying as hard as you could be’ Related
Facebook8Tweet0Pin0Submitted by Saint Martin’s UniversitySaint Martin’s University Board of Trustees has announced that Kathleen “Kate” Boyle, Ph.D., will be the new provost and vice president of academic affairs. Since July 2018, Boyle has served as interim provost and vice president for academic affairs. Previously, she was the dean of the College of Education and Counseling, a position she had held since fall 2016.Kathleen Boyle, Ph.D., will be the new provost and vice president of academic affairs. Photo courtesy: Saint Martin’s University“Dr. Boyle has made an excellent interim provost here at Saint Martin’s. We are all pleased to see her continue in this role with the support of the faculty and administration,” said Saint Martin’s University President Roy F. Heynderickx, Ph.D. “She is eminently qualified and I look forward to working with her.”As provost and vice president of academic affairs, Boyle will be responsible for supporting and enhancing Saint Martin’s academic mission and vision, developing and maintaining open and collaborative relationships with the faculty, ensuring faculty development and support, working with the president, vice presidents and Board of Trustees and building internal and external partnerships. The deans of the College of Arts and Sciences, the School of Business, the Hal and Inge Marcus School of Engineering, the College of Education and Counseling and O’Grady Library report to Boyle, as well as offices including Saint Martin’s University – Joint Base Lewis-McChord Campuses, University Registrar, Institutional Research and the Office of International Programs and Development.“I am humbled and honored to serve in this leadership role at Saint Martin’s University. I appreciate the trust and appreciation for what I bring to this vital role expressed through the support of the Board of Trustees, Dr. Heynderickx and the faculty,” said Boyle.Before coming to Saint Martin’s, Boyle was at the University of St. Thomas, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where she was chair of the department of leadership, policy and administration, an interdisciplinary academic department that served around 600 students each year in 15 degree programs and in licensure and certificate programs.At St. Thomas, she also taught in the leadership doctoral program and directed its Master of Arts in Leadership in Student Affairs Program. Prior to her post at St. Thomas, she was a visiting assistant professor in educational leadership and policy studies and coordinator of master’s programs in higher education and student affairs at Indiana University.Boyle’s first professional post in higher education was as a residence hall director at St. Norbert College in DePere, Wisconsin, where she had earlier earned her undergraduate degree in psychology. Positions at Mankato State University, Marquette University and the Indiana University of Pennsylvania developed her interest in student affairs and higher education.Boyle earned her master’s degree in counseling and student personnel from Minnesota State University – Mankato with an emphasis on college student development. Her doctorate in higher education administration within educational leadership and policy studies was granted from Indiana University – Bloomington. She has completed numerous publications and presentations in her field and has received many awards.Saint Martin’s University is an independent, four-year, coeducational university located on a wooded campus of more than 300 acres in Lacey, Washington. Established in 1895 by the Catholic Order of Saint Benedict, the University is one of 13 Benedictine colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and the only one west of the Rocky Mountains. Saint Martin’s University prepares students for successful lives through its 26 majors and ten graduate programs spanning the liberal arts, business, education, nursing and engineering. Saint Martin’s welcomes more than 1,300 undergraduate students and 250 graduate students from many ethnic and religious backgrounds to its Lacey campus, and more students to its extended campus located at Joint Base Lewis-McChord. Visit the Saint Martin’s University website at www.stmartin.edu.
Bombers edge St. Mike’s 1-0 in AA Soccer openerThe L.V. Rogers Bombers opened the BC High School AA Girl’s Soccer Tournament with a narrow 1-0 victory over St. Michael’s University Thursday morning at the Lakeside Pitch.The wet conditions proved unlucky for the Vancouver Island visitors as St. Mike’s keeper had the ball slip through her hands before dribbling over the goalline.Shianne Michalchuk took the shot on a fine pass from Emily Taylor midway through the second half.The goal came against the flow of play as LVR spent the early part of the half playing defence as St. Michael’s held most of the play.The Bombers now meet Nechalko Valley of Vanderhoof at 2 p.m.The format of the 16-team tournament is four pools of four teams. Only the teams that finish first in their pool get to move on to the medal round.LVR, the defending champion, concludes the round robin draw Friday morning against DW Poppy of Langley. The L.V. Rogers Bombers continue to stack up the wins at the BC High School AA Girl’s Soccer Championships in Nelson.The Bombers opened with a narrow 1-0 win over St. Michael’s University of Victoria before filling the net in a 7-0 romp past Nechako Valley of Vanderhoof in the afternoon contest.LVR, defending champs, lead Pool A with a 2-0 record. DW Poppy of Langley is second at 1-0-1 following by SMUS at 0-0-1 and Nechako Valley at 0-2.Emma Wheeldon and Maya Ida, each scored twice with singles Mattea Lorenzo, Laurel Halleran and Shianne Michalchuk.Hanna Quinn had an easy time between the pipes to register her second clean sheet of the championships.LVR now meets DW Poppy at 10 a.m. Friday. The Bombers clinch a spot in the semi finals with a win or a tie.
McLAUGHLIN INVADERS SET FOR MALIBU, LA BREA Happy, healthy and hell-bent on winning, talented East Coast invaders Cavorting, Marking and Watershed had their final major workouts Friday morning at Santa Anita for their respective Grade I stakes engagements in the La Brea and Malibu on Opening Day a week from tomorrow, Saturday, Dec. 26.Cavorting, an eventful fourth as the 3-1 favorite in the Breeders’ Cup Filly & Mare Sprint at Keeneland Oct. 31, went four furlongs in 48 seconds flat. Marking, unbeaten and untested in his two career victories, also went four furlongs, in 47.40, while Watershed went the same distance in 47.60. Each three-year-old was ridden by exercise rider Pat Correa.“I’m very happy. The horses are eating well, they’re bright, they’re very happy and fresh in this cooler weather,” said Neal McLaughlin, 46-year-old brother of 55-year-old trainer Kiaran McLaughlin, who is enjoying a cruise in the Caribbean.Santa Anita clocker Dane Nelson had Watershed going his first quarter-mile in 24.60 with a five furlong gallop-out time of 1:01.60. Marking was given 24.40 for his first quarter, with a gallop-out time of 1:01.80.“We came out of Florida, which is having heavy record heat right now, so it’s nice to see the horses in this cooler weather,” Neal said. “They are fresh and feeling good. I’m glad we changed our plan a little bit. Usually, we do our breezes at home and then ship here and run.“We changed up this year and came out two weeks early to breeze here over the track. The horses are happy, eating and enjoying the weather and I hope the plan works.“We’ll do that for Breeders’ Cup (at Santa Anita next year on Nov. 4 and 5), come out a little earlier, breeze them and hope they run well.”Cavorting, owned by Stonestreet Stables, LLC, is the most accomplished of the trio. The bay filly has had eight starts, winning five, including the Grade I Test Stakes and the Grade II Prioress. “She went super,” McLaughlin said. “It was nice to let her stretch her legs. She’s a bit of a high-strung filly and can be a difficult gallop, so this is probably her exercise rider’s second-favorite day. His favorite day is her day off tomorrow.“She’s certainly fit and ready and a fast filly. We just wanted a nice path and that’s what we got, so it went well.” All three horses are progeny of Bernardini, who stands at Darley Stud in Lexington, Ky. for $100,000. Marking and Watershed are owned by Godolphin Racing, LLC.Also working at Santa Anita Friday for the La Brea was streaking speedster Hot City Girl, going four furlongs in 47.40 for trainer Linda Rice.“She went well,” Rice said by phone from New York. “We’re happy with it. We wanted to get one breeze over the track before the race.” Hot City Girl, a chestnut City Zip filly bred in New York and owned by Lady Sheila Stable, won her last three starts, including the Safely Kept at Laurel by 8 ¼ lengths Nov. 14.The Malibu and the La Brea each offers $300,000 in purse money and will be decided at seven furlongs, the La Brea restricted to three-year-old fillies and the Malibu to three-year-olds.Two additional stakes will be presented Opening Day, the Grade II Mathis Brothers Mile (turf) and the Grade III Daytona.First post time opening day is 12 noon. Admission gates open at 10 a.m. TEAM McLAUGHLIN HAPPY WITH GRADE I CONTENDERSSTAKES DEBUT FOR VIGILANTE IN MATHIS BROTHERS McANALLY NEARS SEVENTH DECADE AT SANTA ANITAPOPULAR WALL CALENDAR FREE TO FANS OPENING DAY VIGILANTE MAKES STAKES DEBUT IN MATHIS BROTHERS MILEVigilante, a lightly raced son of two-time Breeders’ Cup Classic winner Tiznow, makes his stakes debut in the Grade II Mathis Brothers Mile on turf Opening Day.Phil D’Amato is hoping for a solid performance, based on how the three-year-old bay colt owned by Gary and Mary West has been training.“He came in from back East after running at Keeneland on Oct. 21,” the trainer said. “We’ve had him for a little while and he’s doing well, so we’ll give it a shot.”A committed stretch runner, Vigilante came from 10th and last at the half-mile marker to win a one-mile allowance race on turf by three-quarters of a length in the Keeneland race.ANOTHER OPENING, ANOTHER SHOW FOR RON McANALLYRon McAnally has been around the track a few times. The legendary Hall of Fame trainer, who turns 84 come next July 11, has been at every Santa Anita meet since 1948, save 1950 and 51, when he served two years in the Air Force.A fixture at his Clockers’ Corner table as early as 6:30 when temperatures have hovered near the freezing mark on recent mornings, McAnally is sharp of mind and in relative good health as Santa Anita embarks on its 79th season the day after Christmas, Dec. 26.Born in Covington, Ky. and raised in an orphanage with two younger brothers and two sisters, McAnally would go on to reach racing’s greatest heights, training 12 national champions, the most famous of which was two-time Horse of the Year John Henry.He walked hots for his uncle, Reggie Cornell, trainer of the mythical stretch runner, Silky Sullivan, whose breathtaking rushes from last to first in the late 1950s would make him a household name.“I was a groom mucking stalls at Santa Anita with this little guy at the next barn, right where Paddy Gallagher is stabled now,” remembered McAnally, one of the oldest, if not the oldest, active trainers still on the beat. He might have more rings around his trunk than any of his contemporaries.“I went into the Service and when I came back, this guy was all the rage, winning races left and right. I didn’t know who he was.”The man was Bill Shoemaker.“I came here in 1948 in the dead of winter,” McAnally said, “and Lefty Nickerson had come in from the East Coast. It snowed like hell while he was here and he looked at me and said, ‘I thought it never snowed in Southern California.’”McAnally, ably assisted by former trainer Dan Landers since 1995, isn’t winning in bunches like he did three decades ago, but he takes it in stride, waxing philosophically.“No trainer can win races with bad horses,” he says. “But life goes on.”Indeed.FINISH LINES: Santa Anita will give away its popular full color Wall Calendar free on Opening Day to all fans at the track with paid admission while supplies last . . . The first 20,000 paid attendees will receive a $100 Mathis Brothers Furniture gift certificate, and the first 5,000 kids 17 and under accompanied by a paid adult will get a plush, mini-Thoroughbred toy, courtesy of the Mathis Brothers . . . Santa Anita will offer an opening day Trackside Package that includes special trackside seating, a free first drink, and an officially licensed American Pharoah T-shirt commemorating the first-ever Grand Slam champion of horse racing. Use promo code PHAROAH for $5 off the package price . . . Santa Anita Derby winner Dortmund, who worked five furlongs Thursday in 1:00.40 for Bob Baffert, will not run in the Malibu, the Hall of Fame trainer said Friday morning. “I don’t want to back him up,” Baffert said, alluding to the 1 1/8-mile Native Diver Stakes Dortmund won on Nov. 28 and the seven furlong Malibu. A more likely spot for the son of Big Brown would be the Jan. 9 San Pasqual Stakes at a mile and a sixteenth and a likely confrontation with 2014 Horse of the Year California Chrome . . . Another candidate for the San Pasqual is Gold Cup at Santa Anita winner Hard Aces trained by John Sadler, who said Santa Anita Oaks winner Stellar Wind is enjoying some R&R and won’t start back until mid-meet, with the Breeders’ Cup at Santa Anita a long-range goal . . . Triple Crown-winning jockey Victor Espinoza, a finalist for Santa Anita’s George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award, was a visitor to Clocker’s Corner Friday morning, recently back from Hong Kong where he participated in a Jockeys’ Challenge competition . . . Agent Nelson Arroyo reports that Stuart Elliott arrives from Kentucky next Friday to ride full time at Santa Anita. Arroyo also represents Abel Lezcano, who has been busy in the mornings working horses for alpha trainers Richard Baltas, Jerry Hollendorfer, Peter Miller, Doug O’Neill and Sadler . . . Multiple graded stakes winner Taris worked four furlongs Friday in 49.40 for trainer Simon Callaghan . . . Agent Michael Burns has taken the book of jockey Jose Verenzuela. The 48-year-old has been riding more than 25 years and ridden more than 1,500 winners with his biggest victory coming in the $2 million Group 1 Dubai Golden Shaheen at Nad Al Sheba in 2009 aboard the Jerry Barton-trained Big City Man for Saudi Prince Sultan Mohammad Saud Al Kabeer. A native of Venezuela and a countrymate of North America’s leading jockey by earnings Javier Castellano in addition to hot-riding Santiago Gonzalez, Verenzuela also rode for three seasons in Singapore, with his biggest success coming aboard Flax in the $500,000, Group 1 Raffles Cup in 2012. Burns also represents 25-year-old Gonzalo Nicolas, who began riding as a journeyman on Memorial Day and has ridden 51 winners . . . Greg Hendricks, 20-year-old son of trainer Dan Hendricks, was aboard multiple stakes winner Om as he galloped Friday morning in preparation for the Mathis Brothers Mile. “Greg’s been galloping for me since he was 16,” Dan said . . . Serving coffee free at Clockers’ Corner, generously initiated by Los Angeles Turf Club Chairman Keith Brackpool two days ago, is proving a rousing success. “We served over 200 cups Thursday, double our normal amount,” said hostess Rosie Ybarra. “Before, everybody would walk around with a Starbucks. Now they walk around with a Rosiebucks.”
Fans can submit names using the hashtag #sallyssister, by email to [email protected] or in person at Santa Anita with one of the customer service representatives who will timestamp the entry. The fan who submits the winning name will receive lunch for four in the FrontRunner restaurant, a picture with Sally’s Sister and a Carriage Ride at Santa Anita; or a $200 gift certificate from Champions! Gifts & Apparel. In cases of multiple submissions of the same name, the winner will be the first entry received. Arcadia, CA (Dec. 31, 2015) – Sally’s sister needs a name and Santa Anita is asking fans for their help. Entries will be accepted through 5:00 p.m. PT on Thursday, Jan. 7 and the winner will be announced Saturday, Jan. 9, which is also the day the Secretariat Vox Populi (Voice of the People) Award will be presented. The winning name will be chosen by Rickerd. The contest is also open to employees of Santa Anita, many of whom make a daily stop by the carriage barn to visit Sally, her sister and the other carriage horses. The 5-year-old Clydesdale filly, a half-sister to the popular ‘Sally,’ who pulls the carriage in the afternoon for racing officials, arrived at The Great Race Place from her home in Iowa just before Christmas with the name ‘Betsy.’ Santa Anita, however, doesn’t feel the name quite fits the blazed-face gentle giant. “She’s just not a ‘Betsy’,” explained Paige Rickerd, owner of Paige’s Horse & Carriage, who owns Sally and the other carriage horses at Santa Anita. “Sally has so many fans that we are hoping one of them has the right name for her sister.”
NEW YORK (CMC): Jamaican sprint star Usain Bolt says he is targeting a sub-19-seconds run in the 200 metres and has cast doubt over whether he will wind up his illustrious career following the Rio Olympics in August. The reigning World and Olympic champion in both the 100 and 200 metres, Bolt is seeking to become the first athlete to win the events at three successive Olympiads, following his conquests in Beijing in 2008 and in London four years later. “Just to defend my titles, to do the three-peat. That’s my main goal. That’s my main focus,” Bolt said here. “My secondary goal is to try and run sub-19. That’s something I really want, and I hope that everything goes smoothly and I can get it. That would be a big step for me.” The 29-year-old, who holds the 200 metres world record at 19.19 seconds, has struggled with an ankle injury this year but has slowly worked his way back into fitness and is scheduled to make his season debut next month at the Cayman Islands Invitational. Bolt is also expected to appear at the Ostrava Golden Spike later in May before participating in his own track club’s meet, Racer’s Track Club Grand Prix, in June, ahead of the Jamaica trials. “I’m feeling OK. My coach (Glen Mills) says my fitness is not exactly where he wants it to be,” Bolt said. “Starting out this season, I had a problem with my ankles, and it was a setback, but not that bad. We’re getting back on track, and he’s happy with the progress I’m making.” He added: “I have two months before trials and three and a half months before the championships. I’ll keep pushing myself, and hopefully, everything smooths out and I’ll be at my best when the Olympics comes around.” KEEPING OPTIONS OPEN Though he has hinted at retirement after Rio, he said Mills had urged him to keep his options open regarding the issue. “Coach says I shouldn’t say I want to retire just yet. I should focus on the year and see how I feel after the World Championships (in London),” he said, in reference to the IAAF event next year. “And if I still feel like I want to retire, I should. But he says to give it a chance because I think my coach is pushing for me to go a few more years. We’ll see what happens. “Personally, I don’t really want to continue for years and years because it’s getting hard. I have to sacrifice more and more. It takes up so much of your time.” He continued: “I’m never going to come out and joke or be a joke in a season. I’m a winner. I believe in winning. I hate to lose. I will never come out and say it is a farewell tour. I will want to compete at my best, go to the championships and win again.”
ANAHEIM — On paper, this last week was supposed to be cake.The A’s entered the road trip with some semblance of a lead eased by visions of the tanking teams that lay ahead. The Angels aren’t supposed to win right now, Mike Trout and Shohei Ohtani are in and out of surgeries and half the Salt Lake Bees occupied its lineup on Tuesday.So young players looking to prove themselves outbid a worn offense looking to keep chugging steam; the A’s fell to the Angels, 3-2.‘We just have show up and win …
(Visited 177 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 It’s not that monkeys don’t have the vocal apparatus to talk like humans. They just don’t have the mind for it.Andy Coghlan is perplexed. “Monkeys should be able to talk just like us – so why don’t they?” he asks at New Scientist. Studies of macaques at Princeton show that the primates can make the five basic vowel sounds. They could make sounds that humans would recognize.“No one can say now that there’s a vocal anatomy problem with monkey speech,” says Asif Ghazanfar at Princeton University, and co-leader of the study team. “They have a speech-ready vocal anatomy, but not a speech-ready brain. Now we need to find out why the human but not the monkey brain can produce language.”Did Coghlan ever consider that monkeys just don’t know anything to say? To say things, you need to be able to form concepts in the mind. Your vocal cords, tongue, lips and teeth are just tools for uttering sounds that other beings can recognize as concepts, according to a language convention. Animals clearly signal one another with their screeches, chirps, burps and grunts, but only humans have conceptual language and all it entails: grammar, syntax, and (especially) semantics, which entails symbols, abstraction, and recursion.Science Daily takes the discussion beyond mere language to intelligence.Our brains have a basic algorithm that enables us to not just recognize a traditional Thanksgiving meal, but the intelligence to ponder the broader implications of a bountiful harvest as well as good family and friends….“A relatively simple mathematical logic underlies our complex brain computations,” said Dr. Joe Z. Tsien, neuroscientist at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, co-director of the Augusta University Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Cognitive and Systems Neurobiology.And yet Tsien limits himself to neurons. He presents a reductionist view of intelligence that makes no distinctions between humans and animals. He works upward from neurons to networks to algorithms, and assumes conceptual knowledge will arise from those foundations.“You know an office is an office whether it’s at your house or the White House,” Tsien said of the ability to conceptualize knowledge, one of many things that distinguishes us from computers….Neuroscientists as well as computer experts have long been curious about how the brain is able to not only hold specific information, like a computer, but — unlike even the most sophisticated technology — to also categorize and generalize the information into abstract knowledge and concepts.“Many people have long speculated that there has to be a basic design principle from which intelligence originates and the brain evolves, like how the double helix of DNA and genetic codes are universal for every organism,” Tsien said. “We present evidence that the brain may operate on an amazingly simple mathematical logic.”If this were the whole explanation, then Tsien’s own theory would implode. He would not be in control of what his neurons do, any more than he is in control of his DNA. One thing is certain: we don’t see computers or animals communicating abstract knowledge and concepts.To illustrate this, consider the case of an ALS patient who is unable to move or speak. Lacking the use of her vocal apparatus, Science Daily reports, she has regained the ability to communicate thanks to a new technology that bypasses her physical body altogether.At UMC Utrecht, a brain implant has been placed in a patient enabling her to operate a speech computer with her mind. The researchers and the patient worked intensively to get the settings right. She can now communicate at home with her family and caregivers via the implant. That a patient can use this technique at home is unique in the world. Once the patient learned how to control the speech computer, she could focus her mind on it like a computer user uses a mouse or keyboard, and get it to respond to her commands. But the speech computer is not just responding to neural activity in her physical brain, else it would have started uttering gibberish the moment the implant was turned on and never stop. Instead, the patient knows what she wants to say, activates the proper computer controls, and communicates from her concepts to the computer’s speech processor, which emits sound waves that the researchers can understand. This implies an immaterial mind that activates her neurons under her control.Update 12/13/16: At Evolution News & Views, David Klinghoffer discussed this issue, noting that “evolving the sophisticated equipment specially required for a skill your species will never develop seems a bit puzzling.”The brain is a tool of the mind, fearfully and wonderfully made. All animals are well designed. Many animals have ways of uttering sounds that their conspecifics recognize. Some have high degrees of intelligence, emotion and social ability. But only humans have a soul created in the image of God that goes beyond all this. Only the human mind can ponder abstract realities like mathematics, musical forms, and philosophical systems. Only the human mind ponders ultimate questions. Only the human mind hungers to know its Creator. Only the human mind senses guilt. Only the human mind turns away from its nature into all kinds of evil. You were made for communication. Your brain will die, but your soul will continue beyond the grave. You will communicate with your Creator. Be ready to meet your Maker, by confessing and repenting of your sin, and taking the pardon he offers through his son, Jesus Christ, whose birth we celebrate this month.
For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. Read Next LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netAteneo failed to shut down Far Eastern U’s attack the way it planned, but the Blue Eagles’ red-hot shooting proved more than enough to get the job done.With seven players making at least a triple, the Eagles used a fiery start to crush another contender in the Tamaraws, 94-82, on Sunday and regain top spot in UAAP Season 80 basketball tournament at Smart Araneta Coliseum.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients Racela rues Tams’ poor defense vs hot-shooting Eagles Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Thirdy Ravena finished with another all-around game with 18 points, 11 rebounds and five assists, while Anton Asistio picked up 16 points, built on three triples as the Eagles won by twin digits for the third straight game.“We shot well from the field,” said Ateneo assistant coach Sandy Arespacochaga.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“It’s a high scoring game and we shot well from the field, even from the three-point line. But we also gave a lot of points to FEU. They shot the ball well also, more than what we would’ve wanted.”Later, Paul Desiderio broke out of his early season slump, firing a season-best 28 points as University of the Philippines repulsed University of the East, 84-71. View comments Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight The Tamaraws came within nine points in the fourth quarter but the Eagles, already in the groove offensively, found an answer each time with Ravena, Vince Tolentino and Matt Nieto making big shots to snuff out any hopes of a comeback.Nieto also had three triples and finished with 11 points, while Isaac Go and Rafael Verano also accounted for a trey each as the Eagles continued their offensive juggernaut that saw them beat Adamson by 20 points last Sept. 9 and UP by 21 on Wednesday.Wendell Comboy had 12 points for FEU, which slid to 1-2. E.T. returns to earth, reunites with grown-up Elliott in new ad Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF president Making just 26 percent of his shots in the first two games, Desiderio went 9-of-15 from the field as the Fighting Maroons shook off a flat start to improve their record to 2-1 for solo third behind Ateneo and La Salle.Malinese center Ibrahim Ouattara delivered a breakout performance of 14 points and 18 rebounds for the Maroons who rallied from 13-27 down in the opening period.“I have to give credit to my guys because they were able to withstand UE’s strong start,” said UP coach Bo Perasol said.Playing their third game in eight days, the Eagles came out smoking in the first period with Asistio hitting three triples and Ravena chipping in 10 points in a 34-point explosion that helped erect an 18-point bulge.“Our shooting helped us throughout the whole game, Anton hit the shots early, and all the others contributed so props to my teammates,” said Ravena. “But it was hard to pull off the defensive game plan.”ADVERTISEMENT Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City MOST READ
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